LIFE’S SPAN IS AS LONG AS YOUR HEART’S MAGNANIMITY …!
The ultimate value of life depends upon awareness and the power of contemplation rather than upon mere survival.
The tragedy of life is in what dies inside a man while he lives – the death of genuine feeling, the death of inspired response, the awareness that makes it possible to feel the pain or the glory of other men in yourself
World AIDS Day on 1 December brings together people from around the world to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS and demonstrate international solidarity in the face of the pandemic. The day is an opportunity for public and private partners to spread awareness about the status of the pandemic and encourage progress in HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in high prevalence countries and around the world.
In recent years, all other forms of diseases have been overshadowed by AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ). It caused by the infectious agent called human immunodeficiency virus 1, or HIV-1. It was first reported in the United States in 1981 in Los Angeles,New York, and San Francisco.Within a few years after recognition of AIDS as an infectious disease, the causative agent was discovered and characterized by efforts in the laboratories of Luc Montagnier in Paris and Robert Gallo in Bethesda. This immunodeficiency syndrome was novel at the time in that the type of virus causing it was a retrovirus.
Biological action of HIV :- Retroviruses carry their genetic information in the form of RNA. When the virus enters a cell, the RNA is reverse transcribed to DNA by a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT). The RT reverses the normal transcription process and makes a DNA copy of the viral RNA genome. This copy, which is called a provirus, is integrated into the cell genome and is replicated along with the cell DNA.When the provirus is expressed to form new virions, the cell lyses. Alternatively, the provirus may remain latent in the cell until some regulatory signal starts the expression of this process. There is also a related human virus called HIV-2, which is less pathogenic in humans than HIV-1. HIV-2 is similar to viruses isolated from monkeys; it infects certain nonhuman primates that are not infected by HIV-1
While the AIDS epidemic has engendered an understandable fear of infection among most informed individuals, there are also exaggerated claims of the ease with which HIV infection may be passed on. At present, there is no evidence that casual contact with or touching an infected person can spread HIV-1 infection. Airborne transmission has never been observed to cause infection.The epidemiological data indicate that common means of transmission include homosexual and heterosexual intercourse, receipt of infected blood or blood products, and passage from mothers to infants. Exposure to infected blood accounts for the high incidence of AIDS among intravenous drug users who normally share hypodermic needles. Infants born to mothers who are infected with HIV-1 are at high risk of infection . In virtually every welldocumented case of HIV-1 infection, there is evidence for contact with blood, milk, semen, or vaginal fluid from an infected individual. Research workers and medical professionals who take reasonable precautions have a very low incidence of AIDS, despite repeated contact with infected materials. The risk of transmitting HIV infection can be minimized by simple precautionary measures, including the avoidance of any practice that could allow exposure of broken or abraded skin or any mucosal membrane to blood from a potentially infected person.The use of condoms when having sex with individuals of unknown infection status is highly recommended. One factor contributing to the spread of HIV is the long period after infection during which no clinical signs may appear but during which the infected individual may infect others. Thus, universal use of precautionary measures is important whenever and wherever infection status is uncertain.
Several antiretroviral drugs are now in widespread use that either interfere with reverse transcription or inhibit the viral protease. They are,
|Generic name (other names)|| Typical dosage
|Didanosine (Videx, ddl)||2 pills, 2 times a day on empty stomach|
|Lamivudine (Epivir, 3TC)||1 pill, 2 times a day|
|Stavudine (Zerit, d4T)||1 pill, 2 times a day|
|Zalcitabine (HIVID, ddC)||1 pill, 3 times a day|
|Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT)||1 pill, 2 times a day|
|Pill containing lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir)||1 pill, 2 times a day|
|Delavirdine (Rescriptor)||4 pills, 3 times a day (mixed into water); not within an hour ofantacids or didanosine|
|Nevirapine (Viramune)||1 pill, 2 times a day|
|Indinavir (Crixivan)||pills, 3 times a day on empty stomach or with a low-fat snack and not within 2 hours of didanosine|
|Nelfinavir (Viracept)||3 pills, 3 times a day with some food|
|Ritonavir (Norvir)||6 pills, 2 times a day (or 4 pills, 2 times a day if taken with saquinavir) with food and not within 2 hours of didanosine|
|Saquinavir (Invirase, a hard-gel capsule; Fortovase, a soft-gel capsule)||6 pills, 3 times a day (or 2 pills, 2 times a day if taken with ritonavir) with a large meal.|
Please share your Ideas and thoughts with your freinds and others, and we try to make a good society in this world !
Awareness without action is worthless.
Chemical Information-Courtesy : Kuby,Goldsby,Thomas J,kindt,Barbara,Osborne.Immunology book-^th edition-2002